About Asphalt Sealing
Asphalt Sealing, or sealcoating, is simply the process of laying a thin protective layer over asphalt-based pavement to give it a protective layer of protection against the elements: oil, water, and U.V. The positive effects of asphalt sealing have long been debated. Some claim that asphalt sealing increases the lifespan of the pavement, but again, there’s no evidence that backs up those claims. In fact, asphalt sealing can actually damage the pavement by creating cracks. The excessive water and oil that can be soaked into the asphalt also weaken its structural integrity. And, the chemical fumes emitted during asphalt sealing can also be harmful to humans.
With all of that in mind, it’s not surprising that a lot of business owners, when they set out to perform asphalt sealing, opt to go the non-per square foot route. For one thing, the costs are much lower, often no more than a few cents per square foot. And, the benefits of lower cost and improved performance are well-known. After all, if you want to save money, you want to reduce your operation costs, right?
But that brings us to our next question: Are asphalt sealing pads a good solution for parking lots, blacktop driveways, or other paved surfaces? As with any typical maintenance procedure, regular maintenance is the best way to reduce the cost of asphalt sealing. Sealing at least annually, will help keep dust, pollen, and other pollutants from making their way onto your paved surfaces. It will also help protect your driveway from water damage, as well as mold and algae growth, both of which cause a lot of problems to homeowners.
Now let’s take a look at how often you should reseal your asphalt surfaces, especially if you’re going to go the non-per square foot route. The key, again, is regular maintenance. And as it turns out, the best time to perform asphalt sealing and resealing is during the cold winter months. In fact, there’s even been some recent evidence suggesting that the best time for asphalt sealing and resealing is during the fall, when temperatures are quite low.
Why is that? It’s because fall is when most asphalt-based park finishes and protective coatings need to be applied. Asphalt-based park finishes are very weather-resistant, but that doesn’t mean that they’re impervious to the elements. In fact, the rainy spring weather can still cause problems, as can heavy snow, ice, and even dew. So, by applying the protective coatings only during the wet winter months, you’ll be doing your park and business no favors, and in the end, your asphalt sealing and resealing efforts will be wasted.
Here’s why: Asphalt seal coats are extremely dense. Think about asphalt sealing and resealing – it’s the same product, just in a different form. And, that means that you have to apply a lot less of it to achieve the same degree of protection. That’s why a lot of asphalt maintenance and repair companies (which specialize in asphalt sealing and resealing) will advise you to apply a minimum of three or four gallons of asphalt-base protectant per square foot of paved area. In other words, if you have a parking lot of ten thousand square feet, you’d want to apply three gallons per every twenty-five feet of paved area.
If you were to apply that kind of service to your own asphalt driveway, you could expect to pay anywhere from three to five dollars per square foot. Now consider that the average cost of asphalt sealing and resealing is only about two or three dollars per square foot. Multiply those two by the number of feet of asphalt you’re going to need to cover (per your parking lot, for example), and you quickly come to understand how much asphalt sealing and resealing would cost you. Applying the service yourself would cost you at least a thousand dollars or more. Not very appealing, I’d say.
But, don’t give up just yet – there are other ways to protect your asphalt driveway sealcoating and resealing investment, and they won’t cost you nearly as much, so don’t rule them out just yet. One of those ways is called flashings, which are like raised bumps along the edge of your driveway that will serve as an additional traction aid when you drive over it. The average cost of installing these would be about two hundred dollars, with the total installed cost running into the thousands. Another less expensive alternative is a thin film of asphalt seal coating that has a plastic protective layer between it and the ground, as opposed to flashing. It’s about as thick as standard asphalt, which would then have to be applied to your asphalt driveway sealcoating and resurfacing project in much the same way.
About Geneva, IL
Geneva was an Allobrogian border town, fortified against the Helvetii tribe, when the Romans took it in 121 BC. It became Christian under the Late Roman Empire, and acquired its first bishop in the 5th century, having been connected to the Bishopric of Vienne in the 4th.
In the Middle Ages, Geneva was ruled by a count under the Holy Roman Empire until the late 14th century, when it was granted a charter giving it a high degree of self-governance. Around this time, the House of Savoy came to at least nominally dominate the city. In the 15th century, an oligarchic republican government emerged with the creation of the Grand Council. In the first half of the 16th century, the Protestant Reformation reached the city, causing religious strife, during which Savoy rule was thrown off and Geneva allied itself with the Swiss Confederacy.
In 1541, with Protestantism on the rise, John Calvin, the Protestant Reformer and proponent of Calvinism, became the spiritual leader of the city and established the Republic of Geneva. By the 18th century, Geneva had come under the influence of Catholic France, which cultivated the city as its own. France tended to be at odds with the ordinary townsfolk, which inspired the failed Geneva Revolution of 1782, an attempt to win representation in the government for men of modest means. In 1798, revolutionary France under the Directory annexed Geneva. At the end of the Napoleonic Wars, on 1 June 1814, Geneva was admitted to the Swiss Confederation. In 1907, the separation of Church and State was adopted. Geneva flourished in the 19th and 20th centuries, becoming the seat of many international organizations.
Geneva is located at 46°12' North, 6°09' East, at the south-western end of Lake Geneva, where the Rhône flows out. It is surrounded by three mountain chains, each belonging to the Jura: the Jura main range lies north-westward, the Vuache southward, and the Salève south-eastward.
The city covers an area of 15.93 km (6.2 sq mi), while the area of the canton is 282 km2 (108.9 sq mi), including the two small exclaves of Céligny in Vaud. The part of the lake that is attached to Geneva has an area of 38 km (14.7 sq mi) and is sometimes referred to as petit lac (small lake). The canton has only a 4.5 km-long (2.8 mi) border with the rest of Switzerland. Of 107.5 km (66.8 mi) of border, 103 are shared with France, the Département de l'Ain to the north and west and the Département de la Haute-Savoie to the south and east.
Of the land in the city, 0.24 km (0.093 sq mi), or 1.5%, is used for agricultural purposes, while 0.5 km2 (0.19 sq mi), or 3.1%, is forested. The rest of the land, 14.63 km (5.65 sq mi), or 91.8%, is built up (buildings or roads), 0.49 km2 (0.19 sq mi), or 3.1%, is either rivers or lakes and 0.02 km (4.9 acres), or 0.1%, is wasteland.
Of the built up area, industrial buildings made up 3.4%, housing and buildings made up 46.2% and transportation infrastructure 25.8%, while parks, green belts and sports fields made up 15.7%. Of the agricultural land, 0.3% is used for growing crops. Of the water in the municipality, 0.2% is composed of lakes and 2.9% is rivers and streams.
The altitude of Geneva is 373.6 m (1,225.7 ft) and corresponds to the altitude of the largest of the Pierres du Niton, two large rocks emerging from the lake which date from the last ice age. This rock was chosen by General Guillaume Henri Dufour as the reference point for surveying in Switzerland. The second main river of Geneva is the Arve, which flows into the Rhône just west of the city centre. Mont Blanc can be seen from Geneva and is an hour's drive from the city.
The climate of Geneva is a temperate climate, more specifically an oceanic climate (Köppen climate classification: Cfb). Winters are cool, usually with light frosts at night and thawing conditions during the day. Summers are relatively warm. Precipitation is adequate and is relatively well-distributed throughout the year, although autumn is slightly wetter than other seasons. Ice storms near Lac Léman are normal in the winter: Geneva can be affected by the Bise, a north-easterly wind. This can lead to severe icing in winter.
In summer, many people swim in the lake and patronise public beaches such as Genève Plage and the Bains des Pâquis. The city, in certain years, receives snow during colder months. The nearby mountains are subject to substantial snowfall and are suitable for skiing. Many world-renowned ski resorts such as Verbier and Crans-Montana are less than three hours away by car. Mont Salève (1,379 m (4,524 ft)), just across the border in France, dominates the southerly view from the city centre, and Mont Blanc, the highest of the Alpine range, is visible from most of the city, towering high above Chamonix, which, along with Morzine, Le Grand Bornand, La Clusaz, and resorts of the Grand Massif such as Samoens, Morillon, and Flaine, are the closest French skiing destinations to Geneva.
During the years 2000–2009, the mean yearly temperature was 11 °C and the mean number of sunshine-hours per year was 2003.
The highest temperature recorded in Genève–Cointrin was 39.7 °C (103.5 °F) in July 2015, and the lowest temperature recorded was −20.0 °C (−4.0 °F) in February 1956.
The city of Geneva (ville de Genève) had a population 201,818 in 2019 (Jan. estimate) within its small municipal territory of 16 km2 (6 sq mi). The city of Geneva is at the centre of the Geneva metropolitan area, a Functional Urban Area (as per Eurostat methodology) which extends over Swiss territory (entire Canton of Geneva and part of the canton of Vaud) and French territory (parts of the departments of Ain and Haute-Savoie). The Geneva Functional Urban Area covers a land area of 2,292 km (885 sq mi) (24.2% in Switzerland, 75.8% in France) and had 1,032,750 inhabitants in Jan. 2019 (Swiss estimates and French census), 58,1% of them on Swiss territory and 41.9% on French territory.
The Geneva metropolitan area is one of the fastest growing in Europe. Its population rose from 870,208 in Jan. 2008 to 1,032,750 in Jan. 2019, which means the metropolitan area registered a population growth rate of +1.57% per year during those 11 years. Growth is higher in the French part of the metropolitan area (+2.01% per year between 2008 and 2019) than in the Swiss part (+1.29% per year between 2008 and 2019), as Geneva attracts many French commuters due to high Swiss salaries and a favorable Franco-Swiss tax regime for French residents working in Switzerland.
The official language of Geneva (both the city and the canton) is French. English is also common due to the high number of anglophone immigrants and foreigners working in international institutions and in the bank sector. As of 2000, 128,622 or 72.3% of the population speaks French as a first language, with English being the second most common (7,853 or 4.4%) language. 7,462 inhabitants speak Spanish (or 4.2%), 7,320 speak Italian (4.1%), 7,050 speak German (4.0%) and 113 people who speak Romansh. As a result of immigration flows in the 1960s and 1980s, Portuguese is also spoken by a considerable proportion of the population.
In the city of Geneva, as of 2013, 48% of the population are resident foreign nationals. For a list of the largest groups of foreign residents see the cantonal overview. Over the last 10 years (1999–2009), the population has changed at a rate of 7.2%; a rate of 3.4% due to migration and at a rate of 3.4% due to births and deaths.
As of 2008, the gender distribution of the population was 47.8% male and 52.2% female. The population was made up of 46,284 Swiss men (24.2% of the population) and 45,127 (23.6%) non-Swiss men. There were 56,091 Swiss women (29.3%) and 43,735 (22.9%) non-Swiss women. As of 2000 approximately 24.3% of the population of the municipality were born in Geneva and lived there in 2000 – 43,296. A further 11,757 or 6.6% who were born in the same canton, while 27,359 or 15.4% were born elsewhere in Switzerland, and 77,893 or 43.8% were born outside of Switzerland.
In 2008, there were 1,147 live births to Swiss citizens and 893 births to non-Swiss citizens, and in the same time span there were 1,114 deaths of Swiss citizens and 274 non-Swiss citizen deaths. Ignoring immigration and emigration, the population of Swiss citizens increased by 33, while the foreign population increased by 619. There were 465 Swiss men and 498 Swiss women who emigrated from Switzerland. At the same time, there were 2933 non-Swiss men and 2662 non-Swiss women who immigrated from another country to Switzerland. The total Swiss population change in 2008 (from all sources, including moves across municipal borders) was an increase of 135 and the non-Swiss population increased by 3181 people. This represents a population growth rate of 1.8%.
As of 2000, children and teenagers (0–19 years old) make up 18.2% of the population, while adults (20–64 years old) make up 65.8% and seniors (over 64 years old) make up 16%.
As of 2000, there were 78,666 people who were single and never married in the municipality. There were 74,205 married individuals, 10,006 widows or widowers and 15,087 individuals who are divorced.
As of 2000, there were 86,231 private households in the municipality, and an average of 1.9 persons per household. There were 44,373 households that consist of only one person and 2,549 households with five or more people. Out of a total of 89,269 households that answered this question, 49.7% were households made up of just one person and there were 471 adults who lived with their parents. Of the rest of the households, there are 17,429 married couples without children, 16,607 married couples with children. There were 5,499 single parents with a child or children. There were 1,852 households that were made up of unrelated people and 3,038 households that were made up of some sort of institution or another collective housing.
In 2000, there were 743 single family homes (or 10.6% of the total) out of a total of 6,990 inhabited buildings. There were 2,758 multi-family buildings (39.5%), along with 2,886 multi-purpose buildings that were mostly used for housing (41.3%) and 603 other use buildings (commercial or industrial) that also had some housing (8.6%). Of the single family homes, 197 were built before 1919, while 20 were built between 1990 and 2000. The greatest number of single family homes (277) were built between 1919 and 1945.
In 2000, there were 101,794 apartments in the municipality. The most common apartment size was 3 rooms of which there were 27,084. There were 21,889 single room apartments and 11,166 apartments with five or more rooms. Of these apartments, a total of 85,330 apartments (83.8% of the total) were permanently occupied, while 13,644 apartments (13.4%) were seasonally occupied and 2,820 apartments (2.8%) were empty. As of 2009, the construction rate of new housing units was 1.3 new units per 1000 residents.
As of 2003, the average price to rent an average apartment in Geneva was 1163.30 Swiss francs (CHF) per month (US$930, £520, €740 approx. exchange rate from 2003). The average rate for a one-room apartment was 641.60 CHF (US$510, £290, €410), a two-room apartment was about 874.46 CHF (US$700, £390, €560), a three-room apartment was about 1126.37 CHF (US$900, £510, €720) and a six or more room apartment cost an average of 2691.07 CHF (US$2150, £1210, €1720). The average apartment price in Geneva was 104.2% of the national average of 1116 CHF. The vacancy rate for the municipality, in 2010, was 0.25%.
In June 2011, the average price of an apartment in and around Geneva was 13,681 CHF per square metre (11 sq ft). The average can be as high as 17,589 Swiss francs (CHF) per square metre (11 sq ft) for a luxury apartment and as low as 9,847 Swiss francs (CHF) for an older or basic apartment. For houses in and around Geneva, the average price was 11,595 Swiss francs (CHF) per square metre (11 sq ft) (June 2011), with a lowest price per square metre (11 sq ft) of 4,874 Swiss francs (CHF), and a maximum price of 21,966 Swiss francs (CHF).
William Monter calculates that the city's total population was 12,000–13,000 in 1550, doubling to over 25,000 by 1560.
The historical population is given in the following chart:
The 2000 census recorded 66,491 residents (37.4% of the population) as Catholic, while 41,289 people (23.20%) belonged to no church or were agnostic or atheist, 24,105 (13.5%) belonged to the Swiss Reformed Church, and 8,698 (4.89%) were Muslim. There were also 3,959 members of an Orthodox church (2.22%), 220 individuals (or about 0.12% of the population) who belonged to the Christian Catholic Church of Switzerland, 2,422 (1.36%) who belonged to another Christian church, and 2,601 people (1.46%) who were Jewish. There were 707 individuals who were Buddhist, 474 who were Hindu and 423 who belonged to another church. 26,575 respondents (14.93%) did not answer the question.
According to 2012 statistics by Swiss Bundesamt für Statistik 49.2% of the population were Christian, (34.2% Catholic, 8.8% Swiss Reformed (organized in the Protestant Church of Geneva) and 6.2% other Christians, mostly other Protestants), 38% of Genevans were non-religious, 6.1% were Muslim and 1.6% were Jews.
Geneva has historically been considered a Protestant city and was known as the Protestant Rome due to it being the base of John Calvin, William Farel, Theodore Beza and other Protestant reformers. Over the past century, substantial immigration from France and other predominantly Catholic countries, as well as general secularization, has changed its religious landscape. As a result, three times as many Roman Catholics as Protestants lived in the city in 2000, while a large number of residents were members of neither group. Geneva forms part of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Lausanne, Geneva and Fribourg.
The World Council of Churches and the Lutheran World Federation both have their headquarters at the Ecumenical Centre in Grand-Saconnex, Geneva. The World Communion of Reformed Churches, a worldwide organization of Presbyterian, Continental Reformed, Congregational and other Calvinist churches gathering more than 80 million people around the world was based here from 1948 until 2013. The executive committee of the World Communion of Reformed Churches voted in 2012 to move its offices to Hanover, Germany, citing the high costs of running the ecumenical organization in Geneva, Switzerland. The move was completed in 2013. Likewise, the Conference of European Churches have moved their headquarters from Geneva to Brussels.
Prior to the Protestant Reformation the city was de jure and de facto Catholic. Reaction to the new movement varied across Switzerland. John Calvin went to Geneva in 1536 after William Farel encouraged him to do so. In Geneva, the Catholic bishop had been obliged to seek exile in 1532. Geneva became a stronghold of Calvinism. Some of the tenets created there influenced Protestantism as a whole. St. Pierre Cathedral was where Calvin and his Protestant reformers preached. It constituted the epicentre of the newly developing Protestant thought that would later become known as the Reformed tradition. Many prominent Reformed theologians operated there, including William Farel and Theodore Beza, Calvin's successor who progressed Reformed thought after his death.
Geneva was a shelter for Calvinists, but at the same time it persecuted Roman Catholics and others considered heretics. The case of Michael Servetus, an early Nontrinitarian, is notable. Condemned by both Catholics and Protestants alike, he was arrested in Geneva and burnt at the stake as a heretic by order of the city's Protestant governing council. John Calvin and his followers denounced him, and possibly contributed to his sentence.
In 1802, during its annexation to France under Napoleon I, the Diocese of Geneva was united with the Diocese of Chambéry, but the 1814 Congress of Vienna and the 1816 Treaty of Turin stipulated that in the territories transferred to a now considerably extended Geneva, the Catholic religion was to be protected and that no changes were to be made in existing conditions without an agreement with the Holy See. Napoleon's common policy was to emancipate Catholics in Protestant-majority areas, and the other way around, as well as emancipating Jews. In 1819, the city of Geneva and 20 parishes were united to the Diocese of Lausanne by Pope Pius VII and in 1822, the non-Swiss territory was made into the Diocese of Annecy. A variety of concord with the civil authorities came as a result of the separation of church and state, enacted with strong Catholic support in 1907.
In 2014 the incidence of crimes listed in the Swiss Criminal Code in Geneva was 143.9 per thousand residents. During the same period the rate of drug crimes was 33.6 per thousand residents. The rate of violations of immigration, visa and work permit laws was 35.7 per thousand residents.